Information For Authors

1. Manuscripts for publication must be in English language (UK).

2. Manuscripts should be typed on one side of an A4 paper, Arial font type, font size 12, double spacing, and two inches margins.

3. Manuscripts should not exceed 20 pages and they should be numbered consecutively inclusive of references.

4. Manuscripts from authors should be in soft copy Word format sent in triplicate to the Editor-in-Chief via email address

5. Manuscripts should have a separate title page with the author’s names starting with the first then the surname, followed by the latest academic/professional qualification and any other significant credentials. In addition, provide information for author(s) designation, institutional affiliation and the address and contact of corresponding author.

Title page shall contain the following:
i) Title of the article
ii) Name of the Author(s)
iii) Position held e.g. Lecturer
iv) Affiliation (Department and Institution)
v) Postal Address and E-mail
vi) An abstract of a maximum not exceeding 300 words
vii) Key Word (at most 5)

Determinants of Demand and Supply
Anthony K. Mwambenja,
Senior Lecturer,
Department of Business Administration,
College of Business Education,
P. O. Box 1968, email
Dar es Salaam.
6. Table, Maps and Diagrams
-Italicize the titles for tables and figures
-Numbered serially and consistently in roman numbers.
-Titles of tables should be on top and those of figures should be below. ????

7. Heading, and Subheadings within the Paper
Headings should be in title case and bold, while subheadings should be in sentence case.

Numbers should be used to distinguish different parts of a manuscript at not more than three levels.

8. Writing Numbers

8.1 Numbers expressed in words
Use figures to express numbers 10 and above and words to express numbers below 10 provided they do not represent measurements and that are grouped for comparison with numbers below 10.

• repeated the task three times;
• two words that mean …;
• Seven lists; nine etc.

Numbers that begin a sentence, title, or text heading (whenever possible re-word the sentence to avoid beginning with a number.

• Ten participants answered the questionnaire
• Four patients improved and other 20 did not improve.
• Six percent of the group failed NOT 6% of the group failed.

Common fractions
Examples: one fifth of class, reduced by two thirds.

8.2 Numbers Expressed in figures
All numbers 10 and above except Numbers preceding a measurement
Examples: 12 cm wide, the remaining 10%, 4.78 liters, 105 stimulus words

8.3 All numbers below 10 that are grouped for comparison with numbers 10 and above

• of 21 analyses
• of the forty stimulus words
• The 6th group… 12 groups

8.4 Numbers that immediately precede a unit of measurement
• a 5-mg dose,
• with 10.54 cm piece of clothe

8.5 Numbers that represent statistical or mathematical functions, fractional or decimal quantities, percentages, ratios, percentiles and quartiles

• Multiplied by 5
• times as many
• 0.33 of the
• more than 5% of the sample
• a ratio of 16:1
• the 1st quartile
• the 5th quartile

8.6 Numbers that represent time, dates, ages, samples, subsample, or populations sample, specific number of subjects or participants in an experiment; scores and points on a scale; exact sums of money; numerals as numerals

8.6.1 Time of a Day
• 8:00 A.M. (or) a.m. (or) eight o'clock in the morning
• 4:30 P.M. (or) p.m. (or) half-past four in the afternoon
• 1 hr. 34 min
• weeks ago

8.6.2 Dates
• December 12, 1965 or 12 December 1965
• A.D. 1066
• in 1900
• in 1971-72 or in 1971-1972
• the eighties, the twentieth century
• the 1980's or the 1980s

8.7 Numbers that denote a specific place in a numbered series, parts of books and tables, and each number in a list of four or more numbers addresses

8.7.1 Places
16 Tenth Street;
350 West 114 Street

8.7.2 Identification Numbers
• Room 8
• Channel 18
• Interstate 65
• Henry VIII

8.7.3 Page and Division of Books and Plays
• page 30
• chapter 6
• in act 3, scene 2 (or) in Act III, Scene ii

8.7.4 Decimals and Percentages
• a 2.7 average
• 13.25 percent (in nonscientific contexts)
• 25% (in scientific contexts)
• .037 metric ton

8.7.5 Use a combination of figures and words to express
a) Large Round Numbers (starting with millions)
• Almost 3 million people
• four billion dollars (or) $4 billion
• 16,500,000 (or) 16.5 million
• A budget of $2.5 billion
b) back -to -back modifiers
• two-way interactions
• Ten 7-point scales
• The first 10 items

8.8 Decimal Fractions
Use a zero before the decimal point when numbers are less than 1.
• 0.23 cm
• 0.48s

Do not use a zero before a decimal fraction when the number cannot be greater than 1.That is correlations, proportions, and levels of statistical significance.

r (24) =-.43, p<.05
Round off numbers preferably to two decimal places.
Report correlations, proportions, and inferential statistics such as t, F, and chi-square to two decimal places (i. e. the lowest reported significance probability being p<.01 under normal circumstances).

8.9 Repeat numbers in commercial writing
The bill will not exceed one hundred (100) dollars.

8.9.1 Numerals in legal writing
The cost of damage is $1,365.42.

8.10 Using footnotes in a sentence
Example 1 – Content Footnote: “Under the DSHEA, dietary supplements no longer receive approval from the FDA before being marketed unless the supplement contains a new dietary ingredient (DSHEA, 1994).1 ”
1A new dietary ingredient is defined as dietary ingredients that were not marketed in the United States in a dietary supplement prior to October 15, 1994.

Example 2 – Content Footnote: “The questionnaire (see Supplementary material3) was comprised of 4 parts: student perception regarding content of nutrition education; duration of time spent on nutrition education; preferred education approach to nutrition; and demographics.”
3Supplementary data are available on the journal Web site ( or may be purchased from the Depository of Unpublished Data, Document Delivery, CISTI, National Research Council Canada, Building M-55, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada. DUD 5396. For more information on obtaining material refer to

Example 3 – Copyright Permission Footnote: “Trust in authority was measured using four items drawn from models of motive-based trust (Tyler & Huo, 2002).2”
2From the chapters “Motive-Based Trust and Decision Acceptance” and “Societal Orientations: Legitimacy and Connections With Society” in Trust in the Law: Encouraging Public Cooperation With the Police and Courts, by Tom R. Tyler and Yuen J. Huo, 2002, New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Copyright 2002 by the Russell Sage Foundation, 112 East 64th Street, New York, NY 10021. Reprinted with permission.

8.10.1 Compiling footnotes at the end of your paper
If several footnotes are used, place footnotes on a separate page after the references section. “Footnotes” is at the top center of the page. The first line of each footnote (in Arabic numeral) is indented five spaces, and the superscript number precedes the information or reference. This material is formatted the same as if it were located at the bottom of a page. All footnotes are double-spaced.

1 Copies of the complete 56-item attitude scale and checksheet may be obtained from Douglas Degelman.

2 In order to be able to evaluate possible differences in response to the six-item BDIS when presented apart from the LOC, PP, and Ij scales, an additional 54 participants completed only the six-item BDIS and the checksheet. BDIS scores did not differ significantly as a function of whether the items were presented by themselves (M = 32.76) or embedded in the unified scale (M = 32.92), t(111) = 0.822, p > .10.
3Mr Mapigano had explained to the customers that the satisfaction derived from the service depends solely on the willingness of the customer participation in service delivery, Chapter 2 Dispelling Myth in Customer Satisfaction: The customer experience through the customer’s eyes by Hill, N., Roche, G., and Allen, R. (2007), 26 York Street: Cogent Publishing.

8.10.2 Copyright Permission Footnotes
To cite adapted or reprinted materials in the paper, especially data sets, tables, and quotations that exceed 400 words. Consult the APA Publication Manual (6th ed.) for more information about copyright permissions.

8.11 Citing an Author or Authors
Use author names as part of the author-date system. There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers.

A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.
Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports...(Wegener & Petty, 1994)

A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. (Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993)

In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
(Kernis et al., 1993)

In et al., et should not be followed by a period.
Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

Harris et al. (2001) argued...
Harris et al., 2001) otherwise be follow the APA style

8.12 Article From an Online Periodical
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number(issue number if available). Retrieved from ttp://
Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved from

8.13 Citing an Article From an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. doi:0000000/000000000000 or
Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161
Wooldridge, M.B., & Shapka, J. (2012). Playing with technology: Mother-toddler interaction scores lower during play with electronic toys. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33(5), 211-218.

8.13.1 From an Online Periodical with no DOI Assigned
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. Retrieved from
Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8. Retrieved from

8.13.2 Article from a Database
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. Retrieved from
Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8(3), 120-125. Retrieved from

8.14 Citing an Abstract only
Paterson, P. (2008). How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in custody?: Two prison case studies [Abstract]. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36(1), 54-58.
Hendricks, J., Applebaum, R., & Kunkel, S. (2010). A world apart? Bridging the gap between theory and applied social gerontology. Gerontologist, 50(3), 284-293. Abstract retrieved from Abstracts in Social Gerontology database. (Accession No. 50360869)

8.15 Newspaper Article
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from
Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from